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O Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco tem vindo a dinamizar as relações de cooperação com a comunidade empresarial e institucional, assumindo-se como um intermediário privilegiado do sistema ciência-tecnologia-empresa. Delimitou um conjunto de sectores/ fileiras económicas com interesse estratégico regional e tem vindo a aproximar-se aos agentes económicos com capacidade para a aplicação das áreas científicas do IPCB. O setor agro-industrial tem sido, ao longo das últimas décadas, um dos alicerces da competitividade e do desenvolvimento sócio-económico da região centro. Estão aqui localizadas várias das indústrias de produtos alimentares e setores associados mais importantes do país, em termos de visibilidade, criação de riqueza e de empregos, sendo pertinente a realização de projectos de investigação aplicada orientada para este mercado e para a transferência de tecnologia. É neste contexto que surge o Projeto INOVENERGY - Eficiência Energética no Setor Agroindustrial.
Desde Outubro de 2001 que são ministrados na Universidade Nacional de Timor-Leste (UNTL) cinco licenciaturas em Língua Portuguesa, com deslocação de professores portugueses das Universidade e Institutos Politécnicos e cujas áreas de incidência foram definidas pelo Governo Transitório de Timor-Leste. A organização destes cursos está a cargo da Fundação das Universidades Portuguesas (FUP) na sequência do acordo entre o Conselho de Reitores das Universidades Portuguesas e o Conselho Nacional da Resistência de Timor, firmado ainda antes da independência de Timor-Leste.
The objective of the project is to test the economic viability of the introduction of Angora goats in Portugal and its potential to supply an alternative or complementary income to rural population usig traditional extensive animal production systems.
A new LEADER II project will establish Angora goat enterprises on existing farming units in a marginal area of Portugal that do not at present have any goats. As mohair production in Portugal becomes established the fibre will contribute significantly to the rural economy of the region. The present project will be innovative in Portugal, in terms of its organisation and objectives, and aims to offset the current problems facing these areas, such as the abandonment of existing farming units, which is leading to desertification in certain rural areas in Portugal.The introduction of Angora goats to the Cova da Beira region will contribute to the diversification of livestock at the regional and national level. This will increase the national production of mohair fibre, in which both Portugal and the EU as a whole are deficient.group of ten breeders, each starting with twenty females and two males will be formed. The breeders will be linked in a co-operative, which will buy and transform all the mohair fibre produced. To achieve this, the co-operative will subcontract work to textile factories in the region. As the breeders are associated together, they are able to retain complete control of the purchase and transformation of raw material, as well as the commercialisation of the various products, thus benefiting from the added value of the processing stages. This will make a significant contribution to the economic profitability and technical sustainability of their agricultural activities.The project is firmly based on the concept of integration. The encouragement of cooperation, with the use of common facilities (e.g. shearing, technical assistance, etc.) and the synergy of the cooperative will create the necessary economic balance of the farming units and support the systematic and continuous development of quality and efficiency to suit the requirements of the market.
Foi desenvolvido um estudo que teve por objetivos principais a determinação da percentagem de ovelhas que reiniciaram atividade ovárica bem como o intervalo de tempo que decorre entre o parto e o reinício da atividade ovárica (IP-RAO).
Foi desenvolvido um estudo que teve por objectivos principais determinar a idade e o peso a que é atingida a puberdade bem como a idade ao 1.º parto em borregas de raça Marina da Beira Baixa.
The main goal of this study was to identify the percentage of ewes with resumption of postpartum ovarian activity (POA) and the postpartum anestrum lenght (PAL) in function of body condition score (BC) at lambing.
Em Portugal, a produção de bovinos de carne ocorre em áreas desfavorecidas e é normalmente extensiva. Com a floresta e a agricultura, é uma das principais fontes de receita e emprego desempenhando, também, um importante papel no contexto social e ambiental. Portugal não é auto-suficiente em relação à produção de carne bovina e devido à crise da BSE torna-se difícil prever, a médio e a curto prazo, a recuperação deste mercado. Podemos prever um novo mercado a partir da produção de carne de raças autóctones em sistemas extensivos. Produtores e consumidores consideram que a carne de raças autóctones é um produto de elevada qualidade, com características organolépticas próprias que resultam de métodos de produção diferenciados. Este facto permitiu o alargamento dos pequenos nichos de mercado, que tradicionalmente consumiam este tipo de produtos, e um aumento de valorização à produção das carnes DOP. Como a agricultura portuguesa não pode competir em quantidade e preços com outros países, a diferenciação parece ser a única alternativa para estimular a actividade rural nas zonas desfavorecidas, criando uma mais valia regional, necessária para um desenvolvimento agrícola sustentado. Através da manutenção dos nossos sistemas extensivo de produção animal conseguir-se-á limitar outros tipos de problemas de que se destacam a protecção ambiental, a defesa paisagística e a desertificação humana e física do nosso espaço rural.
Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a freshwater fish originating from the United States of America (USA). This specie was introduced in Portugal (Azores) in the end of the XIX Century. Like in the USA, largemouth bass is one of the most popular freshwater sports fish in Portugal and it is very important in regional cuisine, especially in the countryside. However, there’s a lack of information about the chemical composition of largemouth bass fillet. All eaten largemouth bass in Portugal are caught in large dams and small irrigation dams because there’s no largemouth bass aquaculture industry. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of largemouth bass fillet collected in an irrigation reservoir (39º49’27.89’’ N; 07º26’57.92’’ W) located in the Central region of Portugal. Thirteen largemouth bass were collected (average weight 349.85g ±74.23; average length 27.22cm ±1.43; average K condition factor 1.71 ±0.14) and were frozen during seven days. The cutting carcasses and the filet chemical analyses (moisture, protein, fat and ash) took place in the laboratory. In the carcass, the average amounts of viscera, spine, head, skin and filet were, respectively, 8.52% (±1.41), 17.24% (±1.29), 23.06% (±1.85), 7.58% (±0.60) and 43.59% (±1.91). In the filet, the average amounts of moisture, protein, fat and ash were, respectively, 77.67% (±1.07), 18.46% (±0.83), 0.90% (±0.31) and 1.20% (±0.05). We concluded that largemouth bass has a good filet yield with very low fat and high level of protein contents. In fact, as far as we know, these are the first results of carcass and filet characterization of largemouth bass collected in Portugal.
O presente documento foi apresentado na 2nd International Conference of the LSIRD Network que decorreu em Bray, Dublin em Dezembro de 1998, tendo integrado os respectivos Proceedings.
In Portugal, we are facing a fast decrease in the production of good quality wool. This situation can be seen from a qualitative and quantitative point of view by looking at the most extreme situation, which involves almost the extinction of a Merino breed – Merino Beira Baixa (MBB) – due to its inability to produce high milk quantities when subjected to the better handling of the more intensive productions systems. The changes in the production systems and the need for higher milk production for the production of PDO cheese (Protected Designation of Origin – EEC Regulation 2081/92), but without indexation to the milk of the MBB sheep breed (as opposite to other cheeses made exclusively with milk from one specific breed), has led to the massive introduction of exotic sheep breeds specialising in milk production. In the last decade, the MBB animals have decreased by more than 90%, and urgent action is needed to prevent the disappearance of one more indigenous breed. From the perspective of: • Merino wool produced, it is possible to see a large quantitative decrease; the quality has decreased enormously, and nowadays is very difficult to find, in the breed, fine wool animals; • the productive system, we should emphasise that it is still possible to find farms with extensive systems. However, the profitability of the traditional system based on the MBB is becoming minimal, and the system could disappear if attention is not given to its conservation; and • environmental protection, the disappearance of traditional extensive systems and the reduction of biodiversity are worrying.
Fine fibre in Portugal is almost limited to wool and, for the moment, the country is still responsible for a reasonable amount of production of fine wool. There are no cashmere goats registered in Portugal, and so no cashmere fibre is available, as is the case with Angora rabbits. Angora fibre used to be produced in Portugal, however due to disease problems, the rabbits died and the production of this kind fibre disappeared in the sixties. Currently, interest in farming Angora goats for mohair production is low. From the initial flocks set up in the late eighties (500 animals), there are now only 250 animals. Due to the small amount of fibre produced and to the rapid coarsening of the fibre with age, the national textile industries have never shown interest in developing technology for processing this particular type of fibre. Because of this, the producers need to send the small volumes of fibre produced to France or England for processing. We think that in order to improve mohair production the resolution of industrial processing must be done at the production level in a modular way. It is also necessary that the official organisms have objective guidelines. Even if it is considered as a exotic breed, there are enough information that allows us to say that angora goats can be perfectly integrated in our traditional sheep management systems, and with fewer management problems that some of our indigenous goat breeds. We think that from the three types of fibre-producing animals referred to, angora goat production is the best option in the short term, since it is the animal that is closest to our traditional system of animal production. The Portuguese Textile Industry, since a long time ago, prepared to process the only animal fibre (wool) currently available in large quantities in the country. All the other speciality fibres are imported for incorporation into garments. Wool seems still to have a role in Portuguese Agriculture, mainly fine wool, which is predicted to be in continuing and strong demand.
The objectives of this work are, from one side, to verify the quality of fine wool produced in Portugal, taking as the basis for the evaluation the fineness and, in the other side, to identify the existent correlation between the tactile classification and the laboratory evaluation.
In Portugal we are facing a fast decrease in the production of good quality wool. This situation can be seen from a qualitative and quantitative point of view by looking at the most extreme situation, which involves almost the extinction of a Merino breed - Merino Beira Baixa (MBB)- due to its inability to produce high milk quantities when subjected to the better hadling of the more intensive production systems. The changes in the production systems and the need for higher milk production for the production of PDD cheese (Protected Designation of Origin - EEC Regulation 2081/92), but without indexation to the milk of the MBB sheep breed (as opposite to other cheeses made exclusively with milk from one specific breed), has led to the massive introduction of extotic sheep breeds specialising in milk production. In the last decade, the MBB animals have decreased by more than 90%, and urgent actions is needed to prevent the disappearance of one more indigenous breed.
A ausência de estudos científicos recentes na área das lãs e a fraca valorização comercial dessa produção convertem-na numa actividade marginalizada, ainda que inevitável. As lãs finas de alta qualidade têm uma grande procura nos mercados internacionais. É por isso premente a realização de um levantamento sistematizado da qualidade da lã produzida em Portugal e a identificação de boa bases genéticas. Pretende-se a identificação exacta da quantidade e qualidade das lãs produzidas em Portugal tomando como base os dados recolhidos nos três locais de concentração (Évora, Beja e castelo Branco) e no sistema de classificação utilizado oficialmente em Portugal.
O desenvolvimento deste trabalho objectiva a identificação do potencial produtivo nacional para este tipo de fibras, designadas por FINAS, concorrencial em procura de outras fibras animais como a Mohair e a Caxemira.
The aim of the present wokr is to introduce angora goats onto existing farming units that do not at present keep goats.
Effect og GnRH pulse infusion on LH profiles and ovarian follicle populations at 7 weeks post-partum in beef cows in different body condition.
Effects of bovine somatotropin (Growth hormone) treatment on gonadotropin profiles and ovarian follicle populations during the postpartum period in beef cows in low body condition.
An experiment was designde to determine: a) whether or not the normal process of follicular development can be accelerated in LBC cows by infusion of pulses of GnRH, so that their postpartum anoestrous period is as short as that of cows in high body condition (HBC) and b) the effect of GnRH pulse infusions on associated gonadotrophin profiles.
Foi realizada uma experiência com o objectivo de testar a hipótese do anestro pósparto ser superior em vacas de carne em baixa condição corporal (CC) devida a uma reduzida libertação de LH. Vacas Blue—grey (Shorthorn x Galloway) parindo quer em baixa CC (grupo B constituído por 24 animais, CC média de 2,07 (s.e.±0,05) quer em alta CC (grupo A constituído por 12 animais, CC média de 2,81 (s.e. ±0.08)) foram alimentadas de modo a manterem a CC após o parto. Das 5 às 7 semanas pósparto, metade das vacas do grupo B foram submetidas a uma infusão com 2 µg de GnRH em 2 ml de uma solução salina (G) cada 2 horas, tendo-se conseguido induzir ovulação em 10 das 12 vacas. Todas as outras vacas foram submetidas a uma infusão só com uma solução salina (S) durante o mesmo período e a ovulação foi induzida somente em 1 das 12 vacas em alta CC e em uma das 11 vacas em baixa CC. Os perfis de libertação de gonadotrofinas, a frequência e a amplitude da libertação de LH, não foram afectados, quer pela infusão com GnRH, quer pela CC. O número de folículos pequenos (3-7,9 mm de diâmetro) e grandes (> 8mm de diâmetro) presentes à 7.ª semana pósparto, o número de receptores para a LH na teca e na granulosa e de FSH na granulosa, bem como o número de células da granulosa presentes nos folículos grandes à 7.ª semana pósparto, não evidenciam diferenças significativas (P>0,05). As concentrações intrafoliculares de estradiol, testosterona e de IGF-I nos folículos grandes, à 7.ª semana pósparto, não foram significativamente afectados, nem pela infusão de GnRH, nem pela CC. Contudo, observou-se uma tendência para elevadas concentrações de estradiol em vacas em alta CC quando comparada com vacas em baixa CC. Os resultados sugerem que a infusão de GnRH acelerou o processo de desenvolvimento folicular nas vacas em baixa CC ; outros factores além da CC poderão estar envolvidos do desenvolvimento folicular.
A crescente procura e valorização do leite de ovelha e da carne de borrego tem feito com que, em todos os países onde se explora a espécie ovina, técnicos e criadores procurem os processos mais rentáveis de obter cada vez mais leite e maior número de borregos. Com este fim tem-se cruzado e seleccionada roças autóctones e estrangeiras de modo a obterem-se animais que produzam mais leite por aumento quer dos níveis de produção, quer da persistência da lactação, e dois ou mais borregos por parto com pesos mais elevados e melhor composição de carcaça.
Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a very important fresh water fish in the Portuguese regional cuisine mainly in the countryside (Central region and north Alentejo). Because there’s no aquaculture industry, all eaten largemouth bass in Portugal are collected in large dams (Basins of Tejo and Guadiana rivers) and small irrigation dams. For decades, the Tejo River received environmental pollutants from non-point and point sources that included intensive agriculture, industrial entities, municipalities and nuclear power plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate some metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) present on largemouth bass muscle tissue collected in the section of Tejo River that makes border between Portugal and Spain (TR) (N=9) and collected in three irrigation reservoirs (IR) located near Castelo Branco – Portugal (N=11). Individual were weighted and measured. Age was determined by examining fish scales, and sex determined by gonads observation. Samples for liver, dorsolateral muscle and tail muscle were collected from the right side of the fish. TR average weight 435.14g (±109.15), average length 278.33mm (±23.28), average K condition factor 1.98 (±0.09) and average age 3.11 years (±0,78) were similar (P>0.05) to IR average weight 410.84g (±137.71), average length 278.36mm (±31.13), average K condition factor 1.86 (±0.17) and average age 3.18 years (±0,60). Total mercury was determined in freeze-dried samples by atomic absorption spectrometry with thermal decomposition and gold amalgamation. For the other metal analysis, freeze-dried powders were mineralized with a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2, followed by ICP-OES quantification. Cd and Pb presented concentrations below LOQ (0.025 and 0.15mg.kg-1wet.weight, respectively) for all muscle samples. These values are below legal limits in EU (0.05 and 0.3mg.kg-1wet.weight, respectively). Average Hg levels are below legal limits (0.5mg.kg-1wet.weight) and muscle presented higher levels than liver. These contaminant levels indicate that are no contamination sources in the sampling sites. Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn are essential micronutrients. Their concentrations were not significantly different between dorsal and tail muscle and were higher in liver (P>0.05), with mean concentrations on muscle being, respectively: TR 0.16 (±0.07),
Comunicação oral apresentada no I Workshop of the PASTORAL Project, que decorreu em Sotto del Real, Espanha.
Com este trabalho pretendeu-se avaliar a quantidade e a qualidade da lã de um núcleo de 74 ovelhas de raça Merino Branco, adquiridas pela Escola Superior Agrária de Castelo Branco em diversas explorações localizadas na Região Agrária do Alentejo.
The agro-industrial system represents annually circa 3,6 x 109 € in the formation of the Centro Region of Portugal gross income and that accounts for 39% of the Portuguese overall return for this sector. Given this dynamics it is of utmost importance to perform a consistent strategy to promote the sustainable growth of this regional system income. Therefore, the CERNAS/IPC research unit has developed an integrated approach bringing together several regional actors under a networking logic that links the industrial needs with the academia R&D capabilities, and of capacity building and entrepreneurship (2011-2013). This strategy is rooted in the InovCluster, where CERNAS leads two anchor projects, the in_AGRI and the ECODEEP, and collaborates with a third one, the AGRITRAINING. The in_AGRI aims the upgrade of the system value chains by bridging the academia with the industry in a series of workshops, supported with a knowledge transfer platform and a network of research facilities, and ECODEEP will develop eco-efficiency tools, based on a LCA approach to enhance the overall sustainability by improving practises and find new solutions within an industrial ecology framework. The AGRITRAINING surveys the training needs of the system, looking forward to complement the actual capacity building achieved by the Master courses in Food Engineering and Environmental Management. In addition, an advanced training in Environmental Entrepreneurship is being implemented, and an Innovation Management for SME’s program is being designed, promoting a cultural change towards the sustainable welfare of our present and future generations.
Composição em proteína, gordura e ácidos gordos de filetes de achigãs (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède, 1802) submetidos a três regimes alimentares diferentes.
The incidence and the damage done by stray dog’s attacks in sheep have economical impact in Portugal. We pretend to identify livestock management conditions that help to prevent stray dog’s attacks.
Goat production in Portugal, even for milk, is based on indigenous breeds in extensive systems. Reproduction is based in April/May mating, with the kidding period in September/October. Artificial Insemination (AI) is a fundamental tool to implement breeding schemes for those breeds, which never had any improvement scheme, other than done empirically by the owner/shepherd. Te goal is to identify the necessary interval between kidding and oestrous synchronization or AI, in order to obtain acceptable reproductive parameters.
Livestock production in extensive systems (mainly with sheep) if faced with a high level of attacks/predation done by stray dogs, wolves and other carnivores. In the region, sheep predation by stray dogs is recognised; foxes and Egyptians mongooses also attack lambs. The incidente of attacks on livestock animals was evaluated in Beira Interior, Portugal, based on inquiries (n=156) with the last actualisation in 2007.
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that postpartum anoestrus in beef cows is prolonged in cows in low body condition (BC) because they have a reduced LH pulse frequency compared with cows in high BC. Thirty-six multiparous Blue-Grey (White Shorthorn x Galloway) cows were fed so that they calved in either low (L) (BC score 2.07; SE 0.05; n = 24) or high (H) (BC score 2.81; SE 0.08; n = 12) body condition. (…)
Riassunto Il conflitto con le attività umane è una delle minacce principali per la conservazione di molte specie. Le affinità culturali e ambientali dei paesi del mediterraneo offrono l’opportunità di sviluppare una strategia comune di mitigazione di tale conflitto basata sull’analisi dei danni e sull’implementazione delle misure di prevenzione adottate. Il conflitto è stato analizzato in 5 paesi dell’Europa Mediterranea (Portogallo, Spagna, Italia, Croazia e Grecia) raccogliendo dati preliminari sui danni causati da Orso (Ursus arctos), Lupo (Canis lupus), Cervo (Cervus elaphus), Daino (Dama dama), Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus), Cinghiale (Sus scrofa) e Istrice (Hystrix cristata). I dati ottenuti dalle autorità competenti hanno permesso lo sviluppo di una proposta di progetto LIFE Natura approvato dalla Commissione Europea e iniziato nell’ottobre 2004. Il progetto mira alla riduzione del conflitto tramite attività di gestione partecipativa, prevenzione del danno e miglioramento delle procedure di indennizzo. Le specie interessate sono il Lupo e l’Orso. Il progetto si svolge in ampie aree del Portogallo, Spagna, Francia, Italia e Croazia, e coinvolge un totale di 16 partner, massimizzando così lo scambio di esperienze e rispondendo alla necessità di un approccio pan-Europeo per la risoluzione di problemi comuni.
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that postpartum anoestrus in beef cows is prolonged in cows in low condition (BC) because they have a reduced LH pulse frequency compared with cows in high BC.
Portugal, located in the Mediterranean region, one of the "Hot Spot" of the planet, has a huge variability in terms of topography, soils, climate, agriculture, traditions, resulting in a high diversity of animal genetic resources, represented by 15 native cattle breeds, most of them threatened. A significant percentage of extensive beef cattle production in Portugal is based on the use of animals, differing from north to south region, with good maternal aptitude, hardiness, a low growth performance and exceptional adaptation to the environment where they live, and especially to the local feed, naturally produced. In the north of the country and the Azores, dairy breeds predominate, while in the south beef breeds are most prevalent. Portugal is not self-sufficient in beef production, however it is possible to appreciate an market for beef produced by indigenous breeds from extensive and organic production systems. Beef from indigenous breeds is considered to be a high quality product, mainly because of the superior taste and structure of the meat resulting from the production system: slow growth rate and type of vegetation consumed. This product differentiation has allowed the enlargement of small niche markets and has led to an increase in the value of meat with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or with organic beef. Since portuguese agriculture cannot compete on quantity or production cost with other competitors, differentiation and quality seem to be the alternatives that may stimulate rural activities in Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) and create a regional added value able to contribute to sustainable development. Extensive animal production systems can be an important component of environmental and landscape protection, as well as contribute to the decrease of the human, physical desertification of our rural areas and animal genetic resources.
O relatório resulta do trabalho de avaliação ao curso de Engenharia das Ciências Agrárias – Ramo Animal levado a cabo pela equipa de Auto-Avaliação da Escola Superior Agrária. Esta equipa, designada pelo conselho científico com a finalidade de proceder a todas as solicitações de avaliação tanto dos cursos como da instituição, é basicamente composta por um coordenador e um elemento de cada unidade departamental. Decorrente do tipo de curso que se está a avaliar juntam-se à equipa os respectivos coordenadores do curso e um relator. Além deste elementos participaram também neste trabalho um representante dos alunos (designado pela associação de estudantes) e dois funcionários representantes do pessoal administrativo e do pessoal não docente. Em termos metodológicos optou-se pelo seguimento do guião proposto pelo CNAVES, tendo-se recolhido informação de diversos modos: pesquisa documental e bases de dados nos serviços administrativos, inquéritos auto administrados a alunos, docentes e funcionários, inquérito postal aos diplomados e entrevistas directas às entidades empregadoras. Uma vez recolhida e tratada a informação procedeu-se à sua análise crítica tendo como referência os trabalhos de avaliação que até então decorreram relativamente à Escola e ao curso de Produção Animal que antecedeu o actual curso de Engenharia em Ciências Agrárias que se avalia.