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The objective of the project is to test the economic viability of the introduction of Angora goats in Portugal and its potential to supply an alternative or complementary income to rural population usig traditional extensive animal production systems.
A new LEADER II project will establish Angora goat enterprises on existing farming units in a marginal area of Portugal that do not at present have any goats. As mohair production in Portugal becomes established the fibre will contribute significantly to the rural economy of the region. The present project will be innovative in Portugal, in terms of its organisation and objectives, and aims to offset the current problems facing these areas, such as the abandonment of existing farming units, which is leading to desertification in certain rural areas in Portugal.The introduction of Angora goats to the Cova da Beira region will contribute to the diversification of livestock at the regional and national level. This will increase the national production of mohair fibre, in which both Portugal and the EU as a whole are deficient.group of ten breeders, each starting with twenty females and two males will be formed. The breeders will be linked in a co-operative, which will buy and transform all the mohair fibre produced. To achieve this, the co-operative will subcontract work to textile factories in the region. As the breeders are associated together, they are able to retain complete control of the purchase and transformation of raw material, as well as the commercialisation of the various products, thus benefiting from the added value of the processing stages. This will make a significant contribution to the economic profitability and technical sustainability of their agricultural activities.The project is firmly based on the concept of integration. The encouragement of cooperation, with the use of common facilities (e.g. shearing, technical assistance, etc.) and the synergy of the cooperative will create the necessary economic balance of the farming units and support the systematic and continuous development of quality and efficiency to suit the requirements of the market.
Recolheu-se, ordenou-se e estruturou-se um conjunto de dados do efectivo ovino Merino Beira Baixa da Escola Superior Agrária de Castelo Branco (Portugal), obtidos entre 1981 e 1988. A idade média ao primeiro parto em função do tipo de nascimento das fêmeas (simples ou duplo) foi respectivamente de 595.07 + 150.01 dias e de 568.63 + 145.92 dias, não sendo significativas as diferenças verificadas. Porém este parâmetro revelou-se influenciado pelo “ano” (P<0.01). O intervalo entre partos mostrou-se dependente não dos meses de parições dentro de épocas mas sim entre as duas épocas de partos (Janeiro a Abril 314.20 + 83.15 dias e Agosto a Dezembro 380.61 + 73.80 dias). O intervalo entre partos apresentou ainda diferenças significativas (P<0.01) para a idade do parto. A taxa da fertilidade aparente foi de 86.2%, a prolificidade foi de 113.5%, a produtividade numérica foi de 91.6%. Todos estes índices mostram-se dependentes da idade da ovelha ao parto, foram ainda calculados outros parâmetros reprodutivos, sendo incluída a análise.
Foi desenvolvido um estudo que teve por objetivos principais a determinação da percentagem de ovelhas que reiniciaram atividade ovárica bem como o intervalo de tempo que decorre entre o parto e o reinício da atividade ovárica (IP-RAO).
Foi desenvolvido um estudo que teve por objectivos principais determinar a idade e o peso a que é atingida a puberdade bem como a idade ao 1.º parto em borregas de raça Marina da Beira Baixa.
The main goal of this study was to identify the percentage of ewes with resumption of postpartum ovarian activity (POA) and the postpartum anestrum lenght (PAL) in function of body condition score (BC) at lambing.
A produção de suínos ao ar livre pode contribuir para a preservação e valorização das raças autóctones e dos produtos delas derivados, evitando assim a sua extinção. O projecto, Produção de suínos ao ar livre – Unidade de demonstração, cujo período de execução vai de setembro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, tem como principal objectivo demonstrar a tecnologia de produção de leitões ao ar livre.
A collection of data has been carried on the Merino Beira Baixa sheep at the Escola Superior Agrária (Agriculture School)in Castelo Branco (ESACB)in Portugal from 1981 to 1987. According to the birth type of females (single of double), their average age at the time of first lambing amounted to 600,10 ± 158,86 days and to 583,90 ± 159,78 days.Differences were not significant. However this parameter was influenced by the "year" factor (P<0,01). It was shown that the intervals between lambings (I.P.) did not depend on the parturition months inside the seasons, but depended on parturition months between the two parturition seasons (from January to March 296,4 ± 64,22 days and from September to November 380,0 ± 71,5 days). The "I.P." revealed significant differences (P<0,01) in terms of the conception age. The average apparent fertility rate amounted to 86,6%, the prolificacy to 114,2% and the average numerical productivity to 92,7%. All these rates were influenced by the ewes age at lambing. Analysis were carried on further reproductive parameters.
Em Portugal, a produção de bovinos de carne ocorre em áreas desfavorecidas e é normalmente extensiva. Com a floresta e a agricultura, é uma das principais fontes de receita e emprego desempenhando, também, um importante papel no contexto social e ambiental. Portugal não é auto-suficiente em relação à produção de carne bovina e devido à crise da BSE torna-se difícil prever, a médio e a curto prazo, a recuperação deste mercado. Podemos prever um novo mercado a partir da produção de carne de raças autóctones em sistemas extensivos. Produtores e consumidores consideram que a carne de raças autóctones é um produto de elevada qualidade, com características organolépticas próprias que resultam de métodos de produção diferenciados. Este facto permitiu o alargamento dos pequenos nichos de mercado, que tradicionalmente consumiam este tipo de produtos, e um aumento de valorização à produção das carnes DOP. Como a agricultura portuguesa não pode competir em quantidade e preços com outros países, a diferenciação parece ser a única alternativa para estimular a actividade rural nas zonas desfavorecidas, criando uma mais valia regional, necessária para um desenvolvimento agrícola sustentado. Através da manutenção dos nossos sistemas extensivo de produção animal conseguir-se-á limitar outros tipos de problemas de que se destacam a protecção ambiental, a defesa paisagística e a desertificação humana e física do nosso espaço rural.
O presente documento foi apresentado na 2nd International Conference of the LSIRD Network que decorreu em Bray, Dublin em Dezembro de 1998, tendo integrado os respectivos Proceedings.
In Portugal, we are facing a fast decrease in the production of good quality wool. This situation can be seen from a qualitative and quantitative point of view by looking at the most extreme situation, which involves almost the extinction of a Merino breed – Merino Beira Baixa (MBB) – due to its inability to produce high milk quantities when subjected to the better handling of the more intensive productions systems. The changes in the production systems and the need for higher milk production for the production of PDO cheese (Protected Designation of Origin – EEC Regulation 2081/92), but without indexation to the milk of the MBB sheep breed (as opposite to other cheeses made exclusively with milk from one specific breed), has led to the massive introduction of exotic sheep breeds specialising in milk production. In the last decade, the MBB animals have decreased by more than 90%, and urgent action is needed to prevent the disappearance of one more indigenous breed. From the perspective of: • Merino wool produced, it is possible to see a large quantitative decrease; the quality has decreased enormously, and nowadays is very difficult to find, in the breed, fine wool animals; • the productive system, we should emphasise that it is still possible to find farms with extensive systems. However, the profitability of the traditional system based on the MBB is becoming minimal, and the system could disappear if attention is not given to its conservation; and • environmental protection, the disappearance of traditional extensive systems and the reduction of biodiversity are worrying.
Fine fibre in Portugal is almost limited to wool and, for the moment, the country is still responsible for a reasonable amount of production of fine wool. There are no cashmere goats registered in Portugal, and so no cashmere fibre is available, as is the case with Angora rabbits. Angora fibre used to be produced in Portugal, however due to disease problems, the rabbits died and the production of this kind fibre disappeared in the sixties. Currently, interest in farming Angora goats for mohair production is low. From the initial flocks set up in the late eighties (500 animals), there are now only 250 animals. Due to the small amount of fibre produced and to the rapid coarsening of the fibre with age, the national textile industries have never shown interest in developing technology for processing this particular type of fibre. Because of this, the producers need to send the small volumes of fibre produced to France or England for processing. We think that in order to improve mohair production the resolution of industrial processing must be done at the production level in a modular way. It is also necessary that the official organisms have objective guidelines. Even if it is considered as a exotic breed, there are enough information that allows us to say that angora goats can be perfectly integrated in our traditional sheep management systems, and with fewer management problems that some of our indigenous goat breeds. We think that from the three types of fibre-producing animals referred to, angora goat production is the best option in the short term, since it is the animal that is closest to our traditional system of animal production. The Portuguese Textile Industry, since a long time ago, prepared to process the only animal fibre (wool) currently available in large quantities in the country. All the other speciality fibres are imported for incorporation into garments. Wool seems still to have a role in Portuguese Agriculture, mainly fine wool, which is predicted to be in continuing and strong demand.
The objectives of this work are, from one side, to verify the quality of fine wool produced in Portugal, taking as the basis for the evaluation the fineness and, in the other side, to identify the existent correlation between the tactile classification and the laboratory evaluation.
In Portugal we are facing a fast decrease in the production of good quality wool. This situation can be seen from a qualitative and quantitative point of view by looking at the most extreme situation, which involves almost the extinction of a Merino breed - Merino Beira Baixa (MBB)- due to its inability to produce high milk quantities when subjected to the better hadling of the more intensive production systems. The changes in the production systems and the need for higher milk production for the production of PDD cheese (Protected Designation of Origin - EEC Regulation 2081/92), but without indexation to the milk of the MBB sheep breed (as opposite to other cheeses made exclusively with milk from one specific breed), has led to the massive introduction of extotic sheep breeds specialising in milk production. In the last decade, the MBB animals have decreased by more than 90%, and urgent actions is needed to prevent the disappearance of one more indigenous breed.
A ausência de estudos científicos recentes na área das lãs e a fraca valorização comercial dessa produção convertem-na numa actividade marginalizada, ainda que inevitável. As lãs finas de alta qualidade têm uma grande procura nos mercados internacionais. É por isso premente a realização de um levantamento sistematizado da qualidade da lã produzida em Portugal e a identificação de boa bases genéticas. Pretende-se a identificação exacta da quantidade e qualidade das lãs produzidas em Portugal tomando como base os dados recolhidos nos três locais de concentração (Évora, Beja e castelo Branco) e no sistema de classificação utilizado oficialmente em Portugal.
O desenvolvimento deste trabalho objectiva a identificação do potencial produtivo nacional para este tipo de fibras, designadas por FINAS, concorrencial em procura de outras fibras animais como a Mohair e a Caxemira.
O presente estudo pretende contribuir para o melhor conhecimento da raça ovina Merino da Beira Baixa.
A crescente procura e valorização do leite de ovelha e da carne de borrego tem feito com que, em todos os países onde se explora a espécie ovina, técnicos e criadores procurem os processos mais rentáveis de obter cada vez mais leite e maior número de borregos. Com este fim tem-se cruzado e seleccionada roças autóctones e estrangeiras de modo a obterem-se animais que produzam mais leite por aumento quer dos níveis de produção, quer da persistência da lactação, e dois ou mais borregos por parto com pesos mais elevados e melhor composição de carcaça.
A collection and selection of data has been carried on the Merino Beira Baixa ewes at Escola Superior Agraria (Agricultural School) in Castelo Branco (ESACB) in Portugal from 1981 to 1989. According to the birth type of females (single or double) their average age at the time of first lambing amounted to 599.85±150.47 days and to 574.13±147.06 days. Diferences were not significant. However this parameter was influenced by the “year” factor (P<0.01) Is was shown that lambing interval (IP) did not depended on parturition months inside the season but depended on parturition months between the parturition season (from january to april 322.66±79.31 days and from august to december 380.67±73.81 days). The IP revealed significant diferences (P<0.01) in terms of ewe age at lambing. The apparent fertility rate, ptolificacy rate and numerical productivity are, in 1981-87 and 1987-88, 86,6% vs 85,9%, 114, 2% vs 112,3%, 92,7% vs 84,9% respectively. All these rates were influenced by the ewes age at lambing. Reproductive parameters in period with altered reproductive management (two autonomous herds without ewes transference) are diferentes, favourable to Autumn mating season. Analysis was carried on further reproductive parameters.
The region of Castelo Branco is the 4th main region of Portugal in number of ewes. Sheep production is the major importante activity of its farming systems. Beira Baixa Merino is the most common breed of the region and it is used as a triple purpose: milk, meat and wool. Nowadays, milk has becoming the most importante production. The new production conditions, with acession to the Common Market, lead the farmes to change some components of farming systems. To study how this changes must occur, an inquiry was made to the farmers, that allow a characterization of production systems, as the basis of future work. This paper results from the inquiry referred, and it’s an approach to the production systems of Beira Baixa Merino. Some constraints to the developpment are pointed.
Comunicação oral apresentada no I Workshop of the PASTORAL Project, que decorreu em Sotto del Real, Espanha.
Com este trabalho pretendeu-se avaliar a quantidade e a qualidade da lã de um núcleo de 74 ovelhas de raça Merino Branco, adquiridas pela Escola Superior Agrária de Castelo Branco em diversas explorações localizadas na Região Agrária do Alentejo.
Apresentam-se os resultados de um inquérito às explorações de ovinos da região realizado com o intuito de obter informação que permitisse caracterizar as explorações e que constitui uma primeira abordagem aos sistemas de produção praticados na região.
The incidence and the damage done by stray dog’s attacks in sheep have economical impact in Portugal. We pretend to identify livestock management conditions that help to prevent stray dog’s attacks.
Goat production in Portugal, even for milk, is based on indigenous breeds in extensive systems. Reproduction is based in April/May mating, with the kidding period in September/October. Artificial Insemination (AI) is a fundamental tool to implement breeding schemes for those breeds, which never had any improvement scheme, other than done empirically by the owner/shepherd. Te goal is to identify the necessary interval between kidding and oestrous synchronization or AI, in order to obtain acceptable reproductive parameters.
Livestock production in extensive systems (mainly with sheep) if faced with a high level of attacks/predation done by stray dogs, wolves and other carnivores. In the region, sheep predation by stray dogs is recognised; foxes and Egyptians mongooses also attack lambs. The incidente of attacks on livestock animals was evaluated in Beira Interior, Portugal, based on inquiries (n=156) with the last actualisation in 2007.
Portugal, located in the Mediterranean region, one of the "Hot Spot" of the planet, has a huge variability in terms of topography, soils, climate, agriculture, traditions, resulting in a high diversity of animal genetic resources, represented by 15 native cattle breeds, most of them threatened. A significant percentage of extensive beef cattle production in Portugal is based on the use of animals, differing from north to south region, with good maternal aptitude, hardiness, a low growth performance and exceptional adaptation to the environment where they live, and especially to the local feed, naturally produced. In the north of the country and the Azores, dairy breeds predominate, while in the south beef breeds are most prevalent. Portugal is not self-sufficient in beef production, however it is possible to appreciate an market for beef produced by indigenous breeds from extensive and organic production systems. Beef from indigenous breeds is considered to be a high quality product, mainly because of the superior taste and structure of the meat resulting from the production system: slow growth rate and type of vegetation consumed. This product differentiation has allowed the enlargement of small niche markets and has led to an increase in the value of meat with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or with organic beef. Since portuguese agriculture cannot compete on quantity or production cost with other competitors, differentiation and quality seem to be the alternatives that may stimulate rural activities in Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) and create a regional added value able to contribute to sustainable development. Extensive animal production systems can be an important component of environmental and landscape protection, as well as contribute to the decrease of the human, physical desertification of our rural areas and animal genetic resources.